Diamonds and Thin Films

One of the most scarce and costly materials used in science and engineering, diamond is one of the most widely researched and utilized materials in the deposition of thin films. The high thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity, low coefficient of friction, and strength of diamond gives it great importance in thin film depositions which in turn allows for the use of diamonds in electronics. Chemical Vapor Deposition and Physical Vapor Deposition are used in the production of thin diamond films. Blue Wave Semiconductors specializes in the research of diamond coatings, diamond-like carbon, and other applications of the material with Chemical Vapor Deposition. Due to the rarity of diamond, graphite is converted into diamond using high pressure and high temperatures in order to build a stable carbon allotype.




Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) is one of Blue Wave’s main focuses. HFCVD is the earliest and most popular method for diamond coatings in low pressure. In HFCVD, the substrate is placed in a chamber with carbon containing gases of high volatility – Hydrogen, Methane, and Argon gas. The gas mixture passes through thin wires usually heated up to 2400⁰C.

Blue Wave introduced an innovative development tool for CVD diamond coatings. With Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition, CVD diamond coatings can be deposited on 2 – 12 in. wafers. The HFCVD technique is useful for synthetic diamond coatings, graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and related film synthesis including Silicon and Silicon Carbide (SiC). Blue Wave’s unique HFCVD tool allows for the wafer to be heated to a maximum of 900⁰C for CVD diamonds which is higher than other HFCVD techniques. The tool has the capability to alter diamonds based on the industrial use of the material. With this new HFCVD method, non-corrosive and wear resistant diamond-like carbon thin film coatings can be developed for glass, vehicles, and the semiconductors.


Blue Wave has been providing quality thin films and deposition systems to academic institutions, government organizations, private companies, and international companies and institutions. Research is our main aim, and we strive to promote that with our customers. We work with academic institutions to spur student research, and advancement of nanotechnology.


Thinfilms And Coatings

Thin film technology is the backbone of today’s revolutionary semiconductor electronics industry. It made a tremendous impact on the level of technology that we utilize in our daily lives such as small form factors of smart phones, laptops, ablate PCs, high density pixel cameras, high performance computers, data storage devices, energy generating devices such as solar cells, batteries, lights emitting blue, green, red, and white LEDs, flat panel displays, and many more devices operating in the international space stations. Thin film and coating materials researchers are constantly challenged by the drivers of nanotechnology. Blue Wave Semiconductors continues to innovate thin film deposition tools to address the needs of the research and state of the art integrated & customized physical (pulsed laser, magnetron sputtering, ebeam, thermal evaporator) and chemical vapor deposition (graphene, CNTs, nanodiamond, MoS2) tools for advanced nano and thin film materials at lower cost. Our products are specially designed for high research and development Universities and R&D Labs Worldwide. Our core competency is in designing high performance tools that yield rapid throughput in thin film research in nanotechnology, semiconductors, optoelectronics, thin films and prototyping device technologies.




Blue Wave Semiconductor has innovative and integrated physical and chemical vapor deposition tool products required for cutting edge R&D. Our physical vapor deposition PVD (oxide, nitrides, carbides) and CVD (graphene, nanodiamond, CNTs, microcrystalline diamond, MoS2) products have been sold to various Universities, National Laboratories, Defense laboratories, and private industries around the world.


Blue Wave Semiconductors offers custom thin films and coatings services for your electronic thin film device applications. Blue Wave Semiconductors has in-house application development laboratory with state of the art pulsed laser deposition equipment, electron beam evaporator, reactive sputtering system, and chemical vapor deposition tool for graphene and diamond CVD. With over twenty years of coating experience, we have worked with university labs, government labs, and established industry leaders to provide custom coatings with rapid turn-around. Whether you need dielectric coatings, transparent conductors, metal films or metallized top contacts, our large library of materials will offer you the solution you need. Our services offer the following advantages:


1. Quick and short-run production ideal for prototypes
2. Choose from a wide materials (metals, oxides, carbides, nitrides, silicon, graphene, diamond, etc)) to find the coating that fits your needs. These includes Au, Ag, Ti, Cr, In, Ni, Mo Mn, Fe, Permalloy, W, Mo, SrTiO3, Al:ZnO, ZnO, MgZnO, Ga2O3, ITO, Ta2O5, Al2O3, LiNbO3, AlBN, MgO, MgAl2O4, TiAlO, MgF2, TiO2, BN, AlN, TiN, Y2O3, YAG, CeO2, GaN, ZrO2/Y2 O3, Ge, Si, HfO2, SiC, Diamond and graphene.
3. A variety of deposition methods available including: Electron Beam Evaporation, Thermal Evaporation, Pulsed Laser Deposition, Hot Filament CVD, and MOCVD
4. Customer can benefit from this facility as they need not have to invest in vacuum deposition systems and process understanding.
5. Can provide you with custom tailored coatings that will match your unique specifications.


Working with Blue Wave Semiconductors can be beneficial to end user because of the followings:

• Custom thin films and coatings for your applications without having to invest in vacuum systems and process understanding

• Quick and short-run production ideal for prototypes

• Choose from a wide materials library to find the coating that fits your needs

• A variety of deposition methods available including: Electron Beam Evaporation, Thermal Evaporation, Pulsed Laser Deposition, Hot Filament CVD, and Plasma CVD

• Whether you need dielectric coatings, transparent conductors, metal films or metallized top contacts, our large library of materials will offer you the solution you need.


Blue Wave Semiconductors can provide you with custom tailored coatings that will match your unique specifications. If you need any kind of metallic, oxide, nitride, diamond, TiN, Tungsten, Chromium, or Titanium coating services, you can contact Blue Wave Semiconductors Inc. They can be reached at

OnlineE-Beam Evaporator Companies For High Quality Film Coating!

E-Beam evaporation is nothing but a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique that is used for depositing thin films of various metals and oxides. A powerful electron beam from a tungsten filament is generated and it through magnetic field to hit the source materials. The beam has adequate energy to vaporize the materials underhigh vacuum or reactive gas atmospheres. Typical vacuum can range from ultra-high vacuum to 1×10-4Torr. The electron beam of 6 to 10KV is generated which heatsthe material to its melting and vaporization points. The condensation of vapors occurs on the object or substrate of choice and coats it with the thin film of the selected material accordingly.


There are several PVD classes for vacuum coating processes in which the substance is evaporated and transported in a vacuum. After that, the evaporated material condenses on the surface of substrates as a thin film.Typical distance between the substrate and beam source is 8 to 12 inches depending upon the beam power, required deposition rate, film uniformity, and size of the wafer. Thin films can be deposited at room temperature or elevated temperatures.


E-beam PVD process thus has three mail components and these are:
1. Generating energetic electron beam from the e-beam source,
2. E-beam-material interaction to achieve melting and vaporization of material
3. Transportation of evaporated material in vacuum or reactive atmosphere
4. Deposition of evaporated materials on the substrate.


Earlier PVD processes used to be costly because of expensive vacuum equipmentand slow deposition rates but recently the cost of e-beam PVD processes has been decreased and quality of material and process is improved. Its ability to deposit large area films at high uniformity led to increase in the demand of PVD process.


Now, excellent PVD service providers are available on the internet,which provide the best thin film material for federal government and industrial uses. Blue Wave Semiconductors advance ebeam systems are cost effective, high quality, and high throughput. These systems can be integrated with laser deposition, sputtering, and some CVD processes such as graphene.

Electron Beam Evaporator: A Quality Deposition Tool from Blue Wave Semiconductors

The Electron Beam Evaporator is a unique machine in which a target anode is bombarded with an electron beam that is generated by a heated tungsten filament under high vacuum. In this way, the source metal is heated above its boiling or sublimation point and evaporated in order to form a thin film on the surface of the substrate. The Electron Beam Evaporator has the ability to add greater amount of the energy into the source material and hence it can be used for metals and ceramics with high boiling points for their thin film deposition.


This thin film deposition technique is applied in semiconductor industries to integrate electronic devices with metal contacts. This technique is also used for in coatings applicable to aerospace industry.


The Electron Beam Evaporator works almost similar to the Thermal Evaporator, but the particular method of EBE is more result oriented as it generates more energy in lesser time and hence is beneficial for industrial usage. This is most commonly used for the evaporation of different metals and oxides such as aluminum, titanium, gold, silver, chromium, Al2O3, HfO2, SiO2, etc.


The EBE has the following applications:
•   Oxides and nitrate coatings
•   Coating of metals called metallic coatings
•   Epitaxial Coating
•   manufacture and synthesis of the thin films for chip metallization and anti-reflective coatings for optical components


One of the most interesting things about the Electron Beam Evaporator is that the machine is designed and customized in such a way that it makes the integration easy when it comes to dealing with a variety of other deposition techniques that include laser and sputtering sources.


Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition

With widespread use of electronic devices the semiconductor industry has seen a lot of changes in manufacture of semiconductor devices. Out of various stages for semiconductor manufacturing, fabrication process is one of the most important steps. For fabrication of functional layers over a substrate, the most commonly used technique is CVD (Chemical vapor Deposition).


CVD is done in various processes. One of them is HFCVD (Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition). The Blue Wave hot filament chemical vapor deposition system was built to produce concentrated, dense, adherent and coherent poly-crystalline diamond films on silicon, metallic and ceramic substrates. The HFCVD mechanism is advantageous as it provides the poly-crystalline deposits of considerable uniform micro-structure. It can be scaled for production or large area deposition at lower cost.


The machine is designed to deposit various forms of diamond coatings (UNCD-ultra nano crystalline diamond, NCD-nano crystalline diamond)  poly-crystalline diamond films and 2D carbon- that is graphene, which have broad use in electronic industry.


Equipment specifications:


This product has various fruitful features, which are mentioned below:
1.Specially designed substrate heater to attain a maximum temperature of 800 C, with a facility for rotational capacity of 20 RPM for the substrate and vertical movement of 20-80 mm.
2.A unique gas distribution system with mass flow controllers and bellow-sealed valves to ensure a controllable feed for deposition of mixed gases like methane, oxygen, acetylene and hydrogen.
3.A specially designed-filament holder assembly made of molybdenum, with multiple Tungsten wires operating with an LT power supply for heating up the gases.
4.A state of the art PC-based control system with PLC or Lab View software, for total automatic system.
5.A molybdenum holder, with biasing capability.
6.A unique design of the sample holder, load lock transfer, and gas shower to provide proper distribution of gases for plasma generation and decomposition of the gases in the heated reactor area.
7.A appropriate pump-based vacuum system to create a high vacuum level as well as maintain adequate process pressure with an automatic throttle-valve. Process pressure is monitored by a capacitance mono-meter for accurate pressure control.


If you want to have the above specifications, you must choose the Blue Wave system to buy. You can contact them at anytime as they are available in all 365 days.

A Brief Overview about Pulsed Laser Deposition System

Pulsed Laser Deposition, most commonly referred as PLD, typically uses a focused excimer laser pulses to vaporize a solid material in a vacuum chamber so as to construct a thin film with the same chemical composition as the original target material.


In other words, it can be stated that the technique of Pulsed Laser Deposition is being used to deposit high quality films of materials for long years. This tremendous technique uses high power laser pulses to evaporate, melt and ionize material from the surface of a target.This event of “ablation” produces a highly luminous and transient plasma plume, which expands swiftly away from the target surface. The ablated material is accumulated on a properly placed substrate to form the thin film or nanostructures.


In spite of this extensive usage, the primary processes occurring during the transmission of material from target to substrate are not fully comprehended; consequently they require the focus of much research.


In principle PLD is an exceptionally simple technique, which can be even much easier with the use of Blue Wave Semi Pulsed laser deposition system design and operation. This incredible device uses pulses of laser energy to take away material from the surface of a target for the ablation. The process of PLD enables the deposition of a wide variety of complex materials over an extensive array of background gas compositions and pressures.


There are a number of sites from where one can easily find a wide variety of PVD Products including Pulsed laser deposition system. However, out of all those sites Blue Wave Semiconductors (BWS) is one the most renowned and reliable site to buy a good quality PVD product at an affordable price. The company really feels glad to assist its customers in the selection of the proper PLD equipment for their particular application.

Superconductivity in B-Diamond fabricated via Blue Wave HFCVD

Highly boron doped diamond films were produced using Blue Wave HFCVD reactor over 2” silicon wafers. The morphology and structure of the boron doped diamond films were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The electrical transport measurement show that the boron doped HFCVD diamond film is superconducting with the superconducting transition temperatures of 5 K for Tc onset and 3.0K for zero resistance.

Laser Reflectance Interferometry for In-Situ Growth Monitoring and Characterization of Polydiamond, Nanodiamond, graphene, CNTs, and Nitride Semiconductors

Laser reflectance interferometry tool (LRI) is developed for in-situ measurement of the growth characteristics of carbon based thin films materials. LRI tool integrated with hot-filament CVD (HFCVD) was used to grow films of diamond, nanodiamond, graphene, and thermal-CVD was used for carbon nano tubes (CNTs). LRI allows the in-situ measurement of the growth rate and the surface roughness of the samples as they were grown. This process provides real time information into the growth of films and can quickly illustrate growth features. The in-situ measurements allow for quick determination of the effectiveness of initial diamond seeding of the films. By knowing the wavelength of the laser and by knowing the refractive index of the diamond film, growth rate and film thickness can be determined

RD Visputea, Henry Ermera, Phillip Sinskya, Andrew Seisera, Gary Harrisb

aBlue Wave Semiconductors, Inc., USA, bDepartment of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Howard University, USA.

Using LRI integrated HFCVD; growth parameters of poly and nanodiamond films were correlated such as seeding process and optimization, CH4 concentration, negative biasing, filament temperature, and Ar/H2 ratio on nanodiamond growth. LRI results clearly indicate that seeding procedure strongly affects initial growth stages of diamond film through early start of oscillations. As the film starts to grow the laser reflectance decreases, until nucleation layer is continuous on the substrate. After that laser reflectance starts to increase and oscillations can be measured. Since the time from peak to peak is used to measure the growth rate of the sample, LRI can be used to determine how growth parameters affect the growth rate and surface morphology of the deposited sample. Filament temperature had the greatest effect on the growth rate of diamond samples. Increasing CH4/H2 flow decreased time to nucleation, but had little effect on the growth rate once the film had nucleated. Increasing CH4 concentration increased the growth rate. SEM measurements were conducted to confirm the in-situ film thickness measurements using LRI.

LRI is also used for characterization of combustion of carbon materials. The materials tested were CNTs, polycrystalline diamond, and nanodiamond films heated in air. Each phase of carbon form (polydiamond, nanodiamond, CNTs) has it its own characteristic behavior. The characteristic onset combustion temperature strongly depends on the form of the carbon (sp3 vs. sp2). The LRI for polydiamond has constant reflectance until it decreases at 700°C. Raman spectroscopy showed this was due to the destruction of the sp2 bond but that the diamond (sp3) counterpart remained intact. CNTs and nanodiamond both showed constant laser reflection until total destruction of the carbon films. CNTs were completely and combusted at 660°C, nanodiamond at 740°C, indicated by a strong change in reflectivity. These results will be presented in the light of laser reflectivity monitoring tool integrated with Blue Wave HFCVD or other CVD or PVD techniques used for monitoring growth and characterization of carbon and related optical thin film and coating materials.